Weaving Persian rugs may vary from country or region. The principle of oriental rug making starts from dying the yarn to shearing the pile, the finished products are similar throughout the persian rug making countries.
Oriental rugs with pile, the wool is from sheep whose quality is dependent on climate, diet, and bread, as well as season it is sheared. Once the wool is obtained from the sheep it is washed, the fibers are untwisted and either hand or machine spun.
There are many types of hand made rugs including flat woven rugs like kilims and sumaks.
The Oriental rugs most often chosen for luxurious look and long term value are hand woven, knotted pile Iranian rugs, Indian rugs, Turkish rugs, Afghanistan rugs and some fine Chinese rugs.
A person should understand that a Pile rug takes months and many times years to complete, and is unique sense one will differ from one handmade rug to another. The knots are individually places on the flooring and then cut. Next the yarn is dyed with many attractive colors and dried gradually in the sun. The design for the proposed Oriental rug comes from a detailed colored illustration on a graph paper.
There are horizontal looms used mostly by tribal nomads and vertical looms are used most commonly by city weavers. The warp threads, usually cotton, are strung between the horizontal beams with consistent tension. The thickness of the warp threads and the closeness at which they are strung are factors determining the knot density. There are two types of knots, a Turkish rug knot or ghirdes (symmetrical knot) or a Persian rug knot, known as senneh or asymmetrical knot. An average weaver can tie 10,000 to 14,000 knots per day. One or two inches of the oriental carpet is woven by several weavers per day.
Before weaving the pile, the rug is secured at the bottom by a short kilam, a flat pile less fabric. After rolling the different colored yarns to used into balls the weaver, reading from the design ties a knot around two adjacent warps, slide the knot down to the base of the weft and then cuts the yarn with a knife. After a row of knots one or two wefts are inserted to secure the row. This is done until the Persian carpet is finished with additional kilim and cutting the warp to form the Oriental rug fringe.
Finally, the rug is cut from the loom. The selvedge, the side edges of the Persian rugs is bound. At this point the rug is washed and dried, a carpet cutter shears the top of the knots to create a uniform pile height. The more knots per square inch, the shorter the pile, the more definition for the Oriental rug design.
**This is a lot of information about how rugs are made. If you would like to see a rug on a loom you may come to Persian Rug Cleaning of Dallas and have Mr. Tavakolian President show you in person!**